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  1. kɔ̄ɔ ກໍ ,Click to Listenw ‘too, also’ also appeared in Lesson 10.  The expression kɔ̄ɔ dày ກໍໄດ້Click to Listenw at the end of a sentence indicates that what precedes is a possible alternative or choice in the situation being discussed.  
    Note the following phrases: 
    ເຈົ້າສິເອົາກາແຟຫຮືນ້ຳຊາClick to Listenw

  càw si aw kaafée ly̌y nàm-sáa

Would you like tea or coffee?


    ຂ້ອຍເອົາກາແຟກໍໄດ້ ນ້ຳຊາກໍໄດ້Click to Listenw

  khɔ̂y aw kaafée kɔ̄ɔ dāy nàm sáa kɔ̄ɔ dày

I’ll take either coffee or tea.


    ເຮົາສິກິນຢູ່ໄສClick to Listenw

  háw si kin jūu sǎy

Where shall we eat?


    ກິນຢູ່ບ້ານກໍໄດ້  ຢູ່ຮ້ານອາຫານກໍໄດ້Click to Listenw

  kin jūu bàan kɔ̄ɔ dày jūu hàan aahǎan kɔ̄ɔ dày

We could eat at home or at a restuarant, either one.
  1. Classifiers are used to count.  They also are used to distinguish one of a kind, or set, from another.  In Lesson 17 it was necessary to use phūu ຜູ້ Click to Listenw to distinguish one child from another. 
  ລູກຜູ້ທີ່ໜຶ່ງClick to Listenw lùuk phūu thīi-nȳŋ The first child.
  ລູກຜູ້ທີ່ສອງClick to Listenw lùuk phūu thīi-sɔ̌ɔŋ The second child.

In this lesson, there is a similar use of khán ຄັນClick to Listenw : .

  ລົດຄັນສີດຳClick to Listenw lōt khán sǐi dam The black one (car).
  ລົດຄັນສີຟ້າClick to Listenw lōt khán sǐi fàa The blue one (car).


Compare the following two sentences:

  1. ຂ້ອຍມີເສື້ອສີເຫຼືອງClick to Listenw khɔ̌y míi sŷa sǐi ly̌aŋ I have a yellow shirt.
  2. ຂ້ອຍມີເສື້ອໂຕສີເຫຼືອງClick to Listenw khɔ̌y míi sŷa too sǐi ly̌aŋ I have the yellow shirt.


Sentence “1” speaks of one shirt without reference to any other.  No classifier is needed.  Sentence “2” distinguishes the yellow shirt from some other shirt of a different color, and therefore requires a classifier. 


  1. Note the importance of word order.
  ໂຕນີ້ງາມClick to Listenw too nìi ŋáam This one (shirt) is pretty.
  ໂຕງາມນີ້Click to Listenw too ŋáam nìi This pretty one………..
  ໂຕງາມນີ້ແພງClick to Listenw too nìi phέεŋ This pretty one is expensive.


  1. tìa ເຕ້ຍClick to Listenw (short) refers to a ‘a person’s height,’ not to the length of an object.  sân ສັ້ນClick to Listenw is used when referring to an object. 
  ນ້ອງຊາຍເຕ້ຍClick to Listenw nɔ̀ɔŋ sáay tìa My younger brother is short.
  ສໍດຳສັ້ນClick to Listenw sɔ̌ɔ dam sân The pencil is short.
  1. A question word can be used in a statement.  Note the difference in meaning of the question word in the following pairs of sentences.
  ຂີ່ຄັນນີ້ໄດ້Click to Listenw khīi khán day Ride which one?
  ຂີ່ຄັນໃດກໍໄດ້Click to Listenw khīi khán day kɔ̄ɔ dày You can ride either one.
  ໄປນຳໃຜClick to Listenw pay nám phǎy Go with whom?
  ໄປນຳໃຜກໍໄດ້Click to Listenw pay nám phǎy kɔ̄ɔ dày Anybody
  ໄປມື້ໃດClick to Listenw pay mỳy day Go when?
  ໄປມຶື້ໃດກໍໄດ້Click to Listenw pay mỳy day kɔ̄o dáy Any time.


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